Source: Top10OnlineColleges.org Education is broken. School doesn’t work. The US is falling behind. ● Literacy Rates: ○ 2009: 1 in 3 students scored “below basic” on the NAEP Reading Test (National Assessment of Education Progress ■ 49% of the students who scored “below basic” were from low-income families ■ more than 67% of all US fourth graders scored “below proficient” ● they were not reading at grade level ○ 26% of eighth graders and 27% of twelfth graders scored below “basic” level ○ 32% eighth graders and 38% twelfth graders were at or above grade level (assessment by the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development) ● Math and Science: ○ 15-year-olds in the U.S. ranked 25th (out of 30 countries) in math performance ○ 15-year-olds in the U.S. ranked 21st (out of 30 countries) in science performance ● American 12th graders ranked 19th out of 21 industrialized countries in math achievement ○ they ranked 16th out of 21 in science ○ they ranked last (21st) out of 21 in advanced physics ● since 1983, more than 10 million Americans reached twelfth grade without knowing how to read at a basic level ○ more than 20 million reached twelfth grade without being able to do basic math ● Some things to consider: ○ Many students are not well-suited to wrote memorization ○ Memorization is favored by US public schools ○ An innovative/flexible approach to teaching would encompass more than one learning style Different types of learning: ● Visual (spatial): prefer using pictures, images, spatial understanding ● Aural (auditory-musical): prefer using music and sounds ● Verbal (linguistic): prefer using words, in writing and speech ● Logical (mathematical): prefer using systems, logic, and reasoning ● Physical (kinesthetic): prefer using sense of touch, hands, body ● Social (interpersonal): prefer to learn with other people or in groups ● Solitary (intrapersonal): prefer to use self-study and work alone Each learning style uses different parts of the brain ○ left hemisphere: ■ speech ■ attention to details ■ writing, reading ■ verbal memory, verbal thinking ■ processes information in a linear manner ○ right hemisphere: ■ processing and storage of visual, tactile, musical, and spatial information ■ handles complex non-verbal material ● intuition, perceptiveness, inspirational hunches, emotional processing Personality heavily influences learning style: Collaborative learning isn’t for everyone: ● classrooms are typically situated for extroverts ● extroverts thrive working in collaborative groups and during class discussions ○ comfortable with public speaking and presentations ● introverts prefer quiet (as opposed to classroom noise and being bombarded with stimuli) ○ prefer working on individual projects ○ independent thinking Differences in basic personality affect our preferences for acquiring and integrating information Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) An assessment that divides and defines personality types • developed mid-20th century based on four preferences • Type of data provided based on four preferences: ◦ 1. Extroversion (E) vs. Introversion (I) • how you direct your energy and relate to the world around you ▪ E: action oriented; energized by other people and things ▪ I: reflective thinker; energized by their inner world of ideas, abstractions, concepts • 83% college student leaders are extroverts • 65% Phi Beta Kappa members are introverts ◦ PBK=upperclassmen with highest GPAs ◦ 2. Sensing (S) vs. Intuition (N) • how you take in information from the environment ▪ S: detail oriented, trust and rely on facts ▪ N: seek patterns and relationships; trust hunches; look for the ‘big picture’ • almost 83% national merit scholarship finalists are N • 92% Rhodes scholars are N ◦ 3. Thinking (T) vs. Feeling (F) • how you make decisions ▪ T: value fairness; focus on situation’s logic; use objective criteria ▪ F: focus on human needs and values; value harmony; good at persuasion ◦ 4. Judging (J) vs. Perceptive (P) • how you orient yourself with/to the outside world ▪ J: decisive, self-motivated, plan ahead, adhere to deadlines ▪ P: adaptable, curious, spontaneous; difficulty finishing a task; ignore deadlines ● Combined preferences indicate the Myers-Briggs personality type There are 16 different MBTI types and each type has a distinct preferred learning style: 16 personality types: • ISTJ: Guardian: practical, logical, dependable ◦ famous ISTJs: Warren Buffett, J.D. Rockefeller • ISTP: Craftsman: reserved, analyze with detached curiosity; logical ◦ famous ISTPs: Michael Jordan, Amelia Earhart • ISFJ: Defender: responsible, friendly, conscientious ◦ famous ISFJs: Mother Teresa, Clara Barton • ISFP: Composer: sensitive, kind, modest ◦ famous ISFPs: Steven Spielberg, Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart • INFJ: Protector: firm principles; quietly forceful; serve the common good ◦ famous INFJs: Mohandas Gandhi, Eleanor Roosevelt • INFP: Dreamer: enthusiastic and loyal; care about ideas, language, and independent projects ◦ famous INFPs: George Orwell, Princess Diana • INTJ: Strategist: driven by their own ideas/purposes; skeptical, determined, critical ◦ famous INTJs: Alan Greenspan, Hillary Clinton • INTP: Thinker: quiet, reserved; enjoy scientific and theoretical pursuits; solve problems with analysis and logic ◦ famous INTPs: Charles Darwin, Marie Curie, Abraham Lincoln • ESTP: Persuader: adaptable, tolerant, dislike long explanations; do the best working with real things ◦ famous ESTPs: Winston Churchill, Donald Trump • ESTJ: Overseer: practical, matter of fact, realistic; run/organize activities ◦ famous ESTJs: George Washington, Vince Lombardi • ESFP: Entertainer: easygoing, memorizing facts; common sense, people skills ◦ famous ESFPs: Elvis Presley, Ronald Reagan, Judy Garland • ESFJ: Caregiver: talkative, cooperative, work best with praise and encouragement; interested in things that have direct and practical help in others’ lives ◦ famous ESFJs: Barbara Walters, Ray Kroc, Martha Stewart • ENFP: Advocate: enthusiastic, imaginative; always willing/ready to help anyone; good at improvising ◦ famous ENFPs: Bill Clinton, Mark Twain • ENFJ: Giver: responsible, sociable; responsive to praise and/or criticism; sympathetic, tactful ◦ famous ENFJs: Oprah Winfrey, Ralph Nader, Martin Luther King, Jr. • ENTP: Originator: outspoken, resourceful, good at using logic to validate their rationale, change interests in rapid succession ◦ famous ENTPS: Walt Disney, Benjamin Franklin, Nikola Tesla • ENTJ: Executive: decisive leader, Frank, excel at logical reasoning, well-informed ◦ famous ENTJs: Carl Sagan, Margaret Thatcher CTA: Different personality types utilize different learning styles; sensitivity to these differences would help students succeed.